Peso (moneda de Argentina)
Early research has focused on resource assessment, permitting and legal frameworks related to marine concessions, biofouling and marine corrosion. Pensamientos Neoliberales Reflexiones sobre los mercados de un asset manager internacional. For the second year in a row, all new facilities that came online incorporated thermal energy storage TES.
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Lingotes especiales LGT Autor: Lingotes especiales LGT Por: Iberdrola IBE , seguimiento de las acciones Autor: Iberdrola IBE , seguimiento de las acciones Por: Traspaso cuenta de valores - Comisiones bolsa Autor: Traspaso cuenta de valores - Comisiones bolsa Por: Traspaso de valores a openbank Autor: Traspaso de valores a openbank Por: BME en Bolsa Autor: BME en Bolsa Por: Bolsa de Moscu Autor: Bolsa de Moscu Por: Abengoa levanta el vuelo Autor: Abengoa levanta el vuelo Por: Seguimiento del valor Autor: Seguimiento del valor Por: Opa Atlantia sobre Abertis Autor: El lunes recogida Autor: El lunes recogida Por: Cuentas de Valores Autor: Cuentas de Valores Por: Salir a Bolsa - Empezar en bolsa Autor: Salir a Bolsa - Empezar en bolsa Por: Seguimiento y noticias Autor: Seguimiento y noticias Por: The industry segments with the highest numbers of realised SHIP plants in were food and beverage, machinery and textiles.
One example was the Amul Fed Dairy in India, which installed a m 2 parabolic trough collector field to supply steam for milk pasteurisation; this project has the potential to be replicated by several other dairies in the region. Copper mining and enhanced oil recovery have seen the largest SHIP installations to date. The largest solar process heat plant in operation worldwide in was a Also in , construction continued on the 1 GW th enhanced oil recovery plant in Oman.
Solar process heat is far from meeting its economic and technical potential. Low fossil fuel prices and lack of concern among industry stakeholders about CO 2 emissions and other environmental challenges have limited interest in alternative energy sources, including solar thermal. According to suppliers of SHIP, the most important conditions for enabling robust market development are high fossil energy prices and political mandates for the use of solar process heat.
Monitoring of a largescale demonstration PV-T plant in Switzerland found that the system could achieve an annual thermal yield of kWh per m 2 in addition to the annual kWh per m 2 of solar electricity that it produced. In France, about 55, m 2 of systems — mostly air-based PV-T elements for single-family houses — was installed during the year; this total was close to the newly installed water-driven flat plate collector area 65, m 2.
Solar thermal cooling continued to face challenges during in the key markets of Europe and China due to falling solar PV prices, which allow for the cost-effective operation of compression chillers powered by solar electricity during daylight, and to low fossil fuel prices.
As a result, solar cooling systems are used increasingly for commercial and public buildings when also supplying year-round solar hot water.
In China, increasing use of solar space heating installations during also offered new opportunities for solar cooling because surplus heat in summer can be used for air conditioning.
This combined heating and cooling operation mode was first demonstrated in in an office building in Shanghai with a m 2 flat plate collector field and a 23 kW absorption chiller.
Increasing demand for air conditioning in sun-rich countries, combined with financial support from international development agencies, has helped to spread interest in solar heat-driven cooling systems in non-OECD countries.
In , three new solar cooling systems were completed in Jordan: In neighbouring Egypt, a 35 kW chiller, supplied by a linear Fresnel collector, began cooling a medical centre north of Cairo in October The project was jointly implemented by experts from Egypt, Greece, Italy and Cyprus and received European funding.
Also in , a Brazilian university in the province of Minas Gerais, in co-operation with a local electricity supplier, installed two solar cooling demonstration systems, with a 10 kW and a 35 kW imported absorption chiller and locally produced collectors. The year was a turning point in the solar thermal industry. Demand from homeowners, for many years the core sales segment for the solar thermal industry, again declined, and installers — the key supply chain partners of the industry in Europe — showed less interest in solar thermal technology.
To counter the declining demand from established sales partners and end-consumers, an increasing number of manufacturers of solar collectors and tanks changed their product lines and sales strategies. Many suppliers of solar thermal systems responded to the challenges by taking new directions and diversifying their portfolios.
In Austria, for example, several collector manufacturers added heat pumps and solar PV solutions to their product offerings in order to provide complete heating system solutions.
In addition to focusing on new applications for solar thermal technologies, some suppliers are developing new business models. In Germany, manufacturers of solar thermal systems provided potential end-consumers with online sales platforms for heating systems with or without solar energy; clients could provide information online about their desired heating system and then receive an offer directly from the system supplier, bypassing the installer.
Despite the challenges in much of Europe and China, some industrial players benefited from strong tailwinds in In response to strong market growth in Argentina, at least 32 businesses started commercial activities during the year, for a total of at least solar thermal businesses. Their exports even exceeded domestic sales, of MW th. Manufacturers of air collectors in Germany and Austria recorded increasing sales, despite the general downwards trend in these countries. This growth was supported by cost-effective system solutions e.
The year was a bright period for suppliers of solar district heating systems in Denmark, where the capacity of solar thermal plants supplying district heat doubled in Outside of Denmark, district heating networks usually operate at significantly higher temperatures, reducing the efficiency of conventional flat plate collectors.
Most leading solar thermal manufacturers worldwide consolidated their positions in An increasing number of companies considered solar thermal for industrial processes SHIP to be an attractive business area in A world map published in early included 71 SHIP-related companies from 22 countries; 42 of these companies reported that they had already completed turnkey SHIP reference plants.
In the solar cooling industry, a key area of focus has been on reducing costs. Standardisation of systems is one way to reduce investment costs of technologies, such as solar cooling, that continue to see only small market volumes. Individually engineered solutions that consist of a chiller, a collector field, tanks and a re-cooler generally result in higher costs. Manufacturers from around the globe have responded to the challenge by developing pre-engineered solar cooling kits with cooling capacities between 2.
PV-T technologies combine solar electricity with solar heat production in one element. After several years of a highly fluctuating industry landscape, with PV-T manufacturers coming and going, in the market was firmly in the hands of specialised suppliers with approved PV-T technologies.
By the end of , over 90 countries had seen commercial wind power activity, and 29 countries — representing every region — had more than 1 GW in operation. A significant decline in the Chinese market following a very strong was responsible for most of the market contraction. New markets continued to open elsewhere in Asia and across Africa, Latin America and the Middle East; and Bolivia and Georgia installed their first wind plants of scale in Germany's additions are net of decommissioning and repowering.
For the eighth consecutive year, Asia was the largest regional market, representing about half of added capacity, with Europe and North America accounting for most of the rest. The top provinces for capacity additions were Yunnan 3.
Elsewhere in Asia, India installed 3. The United States ranked second for additions 8. US utilities continued to invest strongly in wind power, with some going beyond state mandates based on favourable economics. To the north, Canada added 0. The EU installed nearly However, ongoing economic crises and austerity measures, combined with the transition from regulated prices under FITs to tenders has affected growth.
Germany again was the largest European market, increasing operating wind power capacity by almost 5 GW for a total of Latin America and the Caribbean was the next largest installer by region.
Eight countries added more than 3. Other countries in the region to add capacity included Chile 0. The African market was smaller than in and , with South Africa adding only 0. There was little activity in the Oceania region during the year.
Australia added only MW for a total of 4. See endnote 66 for this section. China accounted for most of the remainder adding 0. In terms of total offshore capacity, the United Kingdom maintained its lead, with almost 5. Offshore and on land, independent power producers IPPs and energy utilities remained the most important clients in terms of capacity under construction and in operation, but interest increased in other sectors.
Community and citizen ownership of wind generation also expanded during , but only slowly. Policies also have affected the market for small-scale ii turbines, which are used for a variety of applications, including defence, rural electrification, water pumping, battery charging and telecommunications, and increasingly to displace diesel in remote locations. While most countries have some small-scale turbines in use, the majority of units and capacity operating at the end of was in China MW , the United States MW and the United Kingdom.
Repowering has become a billion-dollar market, particularly in Europe. Wind power is playing a greater role in power supply in a growing number of countries. In , wind energy covered an estimated See endnote 94 for this section. Energy costs vary widely according to wind resource, regulatory and fiscal framework, the cost of capital and other local influences.
Even so, challenges remain, with wind power still vulnerable to policy changes or measures to protect fossil fuels in some countries. Challenges for wind power — both onshore and offshore — include lack of transmission infrastructure, delays in grid connection, lack of public acceptance, and curtailment where regulations and current management systems make it difficult to integrate large amounts of variable renewables. Most wind turbine manufacturing takes place in China, the EU, India and the United States, and the majority is concentrated among relatively few players.
Goldwind and other top Chinese companies lost ground due mainly to their heavy reliance on the domestic market. In response to increasing demand for wind power technologies and projects, turbine suppliers and project developers expanded or opened new factories and offices around the world. In the United States, at least seven companies enlarged existing manufacturing plants. Companies expanded their scale and reach through some important mergers and acquisitions, and consolidation continued across the value chain.
The wind industry also showed growing interest in hybrid installations, particularly with solar PV. At the same time, non-wind companies are moving back further into the wind power sector.
Wind energy technology continued to evolve, driven by mounting global competition; by the need to improve the ease and cost of turbine manufacturing and transportation; by the need to optimise power generation at lower wind speeds; and increasingly by demanding grid codes to deal with rising penetration of variable renewable sources. To reduce logistical challenges and costs of transport, and to increase use of local labour, innovations have included two-part blades, nesting towers and portable concrete manufacturing facilities for tower construction.
Digitalisation continued in an effort to provide better quality of and access to data for siting and design, performance management, and trading and balancing of output. To boost output, the general trend continued towards larger machines — including longer blades, higher hub heights and, in particular, larger rotor sizes. Manufacturers raced to launch larger turbines during , with new machines released or announced by several companies, including Enercon, GE, Nordex and Senvion for onshore, and Siemens and MHI Vestas for offshore.
Not surprisingly, capacity ratings also climbed in Offshore, the need to reduce costs through scale and standardisation has driven up sizes of turbines as well as of projects. The offshore wind industry differs technologically and logistically from onshore wind. The offshore industry continued to move farther out and into deeper waters, and the average size of projects under construction continued to rise. The radar can provide valuable insights to inform the siting, design and operation of future offshore projects.
The economics of offshore wind power have improved far faster than experts expected, driven down rapidly by a combination of economies of scale achieved by larger turbines and large projects; increased competition among developers; increased experience, which reduces operating costs; technical improvements with turbines, installation processes, grid connection, and maintenance strategies and logistics; and lower cost of capital due to reduced perception of risk in financial markets.
In June , nine European countries agreed to co-operate on offshore wind power through joint tenders. The same day, 11 companies signed an open letter calling for a stable legal framework and aiming to produce offshore wind power more cheaply than coal within the decade: Small-scale wind turbine costs also are trending downwards, while capacity factors are rising. China, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States account for a large portion of small-scale turbine manufacturers; aside from China, developing countries still play a minor role.
See Sidebar 2 and Table 2 on the following pages for a summary of the main renewable energy technologies and their characteristics and costs. Status of Renewable Energy Technologies: Costs and Capacity Factors.
See endnote of Wind Power section in this chapter. Costs and Capacity Factors continued. All monetary values are expressed in USD LCOE is computed using a weighted average cost of capital of 7. For recent cost and characteristics data for heating and cooling, biofuels and distributed renewable energy technologies, see Table 2 in GSR Among the most transformative events of the current decade has been the dramatic, and sustained, improvement in the competitiveness of renewable power generation technologies.
Around the world, renewables have benefited from a cycle of falling costs spurred on by accelerated deployment, and the competiveness of renewable power generation technologies continues to improve. Bio-power, hydropower, geothermal and onshore wind power all can be competitive with fossil fuel-fired power generation where good resources exist.
Of all renewable energy technologies, utility-scale larger than 1 MW capacity solar PV has experienced the most rapid decline in the levelised cost of electricity LCOE , driven by reductions in module prices and balance of systems costs i. LCOE ranges have narrowed significantly across all regional groupings, and there is evidence of acceleration in the convergence of solar PV installed costs towards the most competitive levels. Onshore wind power has undergone a quiet revolution over the years.
The weighted average investment cost of onshore wind declined by more than two-thirds, from USD 4, per kW in to USD 1, per kW in , due to increasing economies of scale and to improvements in manufacturing and technology.
Onshore wind power has seen a significant convergence in average LCOEs across regions, despite differences in regional cost structures, market sizes and technical skills, and varying dynamics in supply chains. Offshore wind power costs, in general, are higher than for other renewable power generation technologies.
However, they are falling due to several factors — including technology advances and economies of scale — and good cost reduction opportunities remain. In , where appropriate de-risking of projects had occurred, some PPAs and tenders for future projects were signed at much lower prices. This development highlights the likely impact of lower-than-average financing costs and technology improvements notably the very large wind turbines being planned for new offshore projects.
CSP costs also remain higher than those for other renewable power generation options on average, but they have good cost-reduction opportunities, and costs are falling. LCOEs of the more mature renewable power generation technologies — bio-power, geothermal and hydropower — have been broadly stable, with some short-term exceptions.
For example, the global weighted average LCOE of geothermal and hydropower rose between and Further research is needed to identify the reasons for these increases, although the small sample size in the case of geothermal power means that the increase is not statistically significant.
Even taking into account these average price increases, however, these mature technologies can provide some of the lowest-cost electricity of any source where untapped and economical resources remain. This differentiation reflects the very wide range of costs between established markets with good civil engineering capabilities and excellent solar resources, and other locations with much more challenging logistics and poorer solar resources. Väo Biomass Power Plant — Capacity: Biomass Energy There are many pathways by which biomass feedstocks can be converted into useful renewable energy.
Bio-Heat Markets Biomass in many forms — as solids, liquids or gases — can be used to produce heat. Solid Biomass Industry A very diverse set of industries is involved in delivering, processing and using solid biomass to produce heat and electricity, ranging from the informal supply of traditional biomass, to the locally based supply of smaller-scale heating appliances, to regional and global players involved in large-scale district heating and power generation technology supply and operations.
Building Up the Future Brussels: Total final energy consumption estimated at Traditional biomass use in of Mtoe assumes an increase of 23 Mtoe from based on value of Mtoe from IEA, op. Modern bio-heat energy values for industrial, residential and other uses, including heat from heat plants of Bio-power generation of 1. Estimates of traditional biomass use vary widely, given the difficulties of measuring or even estimating a resource that often is traded informally.
For example, one source Helena Chum et al. Cambridge University Press, , pp. Given recent trends, estimated production remained close to 52 million tonnes in Note that a range of biomass and waste fuels is used in processes like cement manufacture.
Some of these materials are of biogenic origin, but other materials originating from fossil sources are also used and should not be included in estimates of renewable fuel use. To achieve this, each country has prepared a National Renewable Energy Action Plan that includes measures to promote renewable heat.
This is leading to growing efforts to encourage renewable heating, which comes primarily from biomass. February , Table 4, http: In the following year, then, generation growth can exceed that for capacity. By contrast, when growth in generation is due to co-firing of biomass usually with coal , the co-firing capacity often is not recorded and the capacity data relate only to dedicated generation.
In that case, generation may rise much faster than reported capacity. Biopower generation statistics are based on forecast data from IEA, op. Data for are still subject to revision; Japan from Matsubara, op. Data for may be changed to account for updated data when these replace preliminary or provisional data.
Anaerobic digestion in the UK saw strong growth in April , http: The current five-year plan has a target of achieving 15 GW by , a reduction of the earlier objective of 30 GW, which exceeded what is likely to be achieved. Note that MSW contains both biogenic wastes and wastes derived from other sources.
It is useful to distinguish between these to estimate the renewable fraction. Capacity figure does not include co-firing capacity. Bio-power expansion is fuelled mainly by forestry products including imported chips and pellets and palm kernel shells. The domestic supply chain of chips from forestry is so far limited and high-cost.
Where provisional data have been replaced in the source, these have been used. With permission from F. Preliminary data for updated when necessary. Preliminary data that appeared in GSR have been updated where necessary. Licht estimates German biodiesel production at 3. Chatham House, 23 February , https: Technology Brief Abu Dhabi: The other fuels are: Both fuels use various sources of renewable biomass such as MSW, agricultural and forestry wastes, wood and energy crops.
IEA Bioenergy Task 37, , http: Figure 12 from idem. GEA, March , http: Capacity and generation for are extrapolated from values from sources by weighted-average growth rate across eight categories of geothermal direct use: Ungemach, Report on Geothermal Drilling Brussels: Geoelec, March , http: GEA, November , http: March , https: May , https: European Commission Joint Research Centre, , https: Total installed capacity is 1, GW Figure 13 based on capacity and generation sources provided in this note.
May , http: Figure 14 based on idem. December , https: February , Table 1. October , http: December , pp. Ocean Energy The definition of ocean energy used in this report does not include offshore wind power or marine biomass energy. April , p. November , https: July , https: Note that some countries report data officially in alternating current AC e. Larger than total five years earlier based on cumulative world capacity of 70 GW 69, Note that countries had solar PV installations by the end of , from Chris Werner et al.
Costs and Markets Abu Dhabi: September , p. See Distributed Renewable Energy chapter for more information. The nine provinces were Shandong 3. February , Table 6. The country added 7, The country added March , pp. The share of the market represented by voluntary procurement not driven by government mandate is becoming increasingly significant for utilities and corporate customers, due to falling prices, from Shayle Kann, GTM Research, cited in Herman K.
The states were California and Massachusetts. The slowdown also was due partly to declining incentives, although these were offset somewhat by falling prices, from David Renne, International Solar Energy Society, personal communication with REN21, 10 April April , https: Regulatory disputes and more on the net metering debate from, for example: March , p.
The data for are drawn from government and industry sources. India joined the top five markets list in , adding 2 GW that year, mainly in the form of utility-scale systems awarded through tenders, from SolarPower Europe, op. The project is made up of five plants in a single location, from ABB, op. State of Affairs in Berlin: January , p. Other markets with increases included Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Portugal, from idem.
The EU installed 5, Other European countries that added capacity include Switzerland, Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Portugal, Spain, Norway and Finland with Switzerland installing the most among these countries, and Finland the least , from idem.
However, self-consumption policies are complicated, particularly in France, Germany and Spain, and thus are not supporting solar PV deployment, from Masson, op. The list of countries constraining self-consumption in some way is long e. April , pp. Renewables , updated 30 March , Table 6.
Februar , p. Official target EEG corridor of 2. February , p. In , MW was auctioned under the pilot auctions. Australia added MW for a total of 5. As of late , Figure 18 based on country-specific data and on sources provided throughout this section.
January , pp. In addition to the Zambia is expanding its non-hydropower renewable capacity to reduce reliance on hydropower, which has experienced a decline in output due to drought, from idem. In , the global solar rooftop segment declined by 1 GW relative to , from idem.
An estimated 55 GW of such plants are in Asia, United States from, for example, Romano and Corfee, op.
December , p. PDF ; Greece based on 3, Estimate for electricity generation is theoretical calculation based on average yield and installed solar PV capacity as of 31 December Solar PV capacity in operation at the end of was enough to produce an estimated 1. Low module prices below production costs for several tier 1 companies by late , such that even the most competitive producers were having difficulty making a profit, from Masson, op.
A Guide for Institutional Investors Geneva: LBNL, August , pp. November , http: In Australia, for example, the cost of solar power was well below retail power prices in capital cities as of early , from Australian Climate Council, State of Solar In February and March alone, expansions were announced in Asia, Europe e.
Closed facilities included, for example, SunPower United States closed a module assembly factory in the Philippines and announced jobs cuts in order to reduce costs, from Mints, op. US manufacturers from, for example, Mints, op. Poor sales performance, failed business models and capital deficiency were three major reasons cited, from idem, both sources. NRG applies to acquire 2.
In addition to those in the text, examples of mergers and acquisitions include: Demand for projects won under tenders, from Masson, op. For stabilisation see, for example: Subham Dastidar et al. Solar Photovoltaic System Cost Benchmark: Q1 Golden, CO: Robotic cleaning systems can increase system output while reducing or eliminating the need for water, and provide savings on vehicle and labour costs, from idem. See also Semprius website, http: Solar Photovoltaic Panels Abu Dhabi: In some cases, information from the above sources was verified against additional country-specific sources, as cited in the rest of the endnotes for this section.
Global CSP data are based on commercial facilities only; demonstration or pilot facilities are excluded. Figure 20 based on idem, all sources. Figure 21 based on data from idem. Ltd, personal communication with REN21, April ; op. May , p. NREL, January , http: February , pp. Figure 26 based on historical data from GWEC, op. Note that additions reported in this section are generally gross additions; the net increase in total capacity can be lower, reflecting decommissioning.
However, relatively few of the countries that installed wind power capacity during the year decommissioned previously existing capacity. Figure 27 based on country-specific data and sources provided throughout this section. The Caribbean island of Bonaire had The top EU countries per inhabitant were Denmark Differences in statistics result, at least in part, from differences in what is counted and when. The difference in statistics among Chinese organisations and agencies is explained by the fact that they count different things: It is no longer the case that thousands of turbines stand idle awaiting connection in China because projects must be permitted in order to start construction; however, there is still often a several month lag from when turbines are wire-connected to the substation until the process of certification and payment of FIT premium is complete.
Deployment in the Central and Eastern regions, over that in the three Northern regions, is prioritised in the 13th Five-Year Plan, and the northern regions have the next five years to solve their curtailment problems, from GWEC, op. Major challenges and reasons from the following sources: This was up from Rankings based on data in this section.
The United States added a net of 8, Ranking second after solar PV for net capacity additions based on above additions for wind power and solar PV, and on net capacity additions from hydropower December , http: The EU added 12, September , https: See also WindEurope, op.
Renewables, updated 30 March , Table 6. See text and other endnotes for Germany data. Germany added 4, MW including MW offshore for a year-end total of 50, MW; during the year, turbines Gross electricity generation from wind power in Germany was Note that numbers of countries and regional data include Mexico but do not include numbers and capacity data for several island countries and territories in the Caribbean region that also had wind energy capacity in operation at end Commissioned but not all grid connected, from GWEC, op.
Six turbine manufacturers, with annual production capacity of more than 3 GW, were already seeing idled capacity in early , from FTI Consulting, op.
Facilities were established to satisfy local content laws, but there is limited if any opportunity for export because the turbines produced in Brazil are not priced competitively, and as of early there was concern about potential for future demand due to the cancelled auction, from Sawyer op.
Annual Market Update Brussels: January , https: Europe accounted for Annual Market Update , op. Countries with projects under construction included Belgium, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, from idem. August , p. WWEA, February , http: March , Summary, http: March , http: Off-grid applications continued to play an important role in remote areas of developing countries, per WWEA, op.
Global small wind capacity at end is estimated at roughly 1. Orrell and Nikolas F. Foster with Scott L. UK data were not available at time of publication. The UK market fell from In , the United States deployed 4.
Repowering began in Denmark and Germany, due to a combination of incentives and a large number of ageing turbines. It is driven by technology improvements and the desire to increase output while improving grid compliance and reducing noise and bird mortality, from International Energy Agency IEA , Technology Roadmap — Wind Energy, Edition Paris: Ultimately, repowering, where it happens, is driven by the economics of the project, and relevance of other factors depends on whether the government puts incentives in place in relation to them, from Steve Sawyer, GWEC, personal communication with REN21, 13 April In Spain , wind power accounted for Wind power accounted for So wind represented Based on data from WindEurope, op.
In addition, downtimes due to maintenance, repair, curtailment, etc. Electricity generation in based on the following: For further details, See endnote for Figure 4 in Global Overview chapter. In Brazil, lack of sufficient transmission lines in areas with the greatest wind power potential is a key barrier to development, and Mexico faces transmission-related challenges, from GWEC, Global Wind Report: For China, see relevant market text and sources.
In addition, Brazil has Siemens fell out of the top five for the first time since , and Nordex returned to the top 10 thanks to its acquisition of Acciona, from idem. Figure 30 based on data from FTI Consulting, op. Also, there were 49 such wind turbine manufacturers producing turbines in All from idem, pp.
January , Executive Summary, http: The new company had 70 GW of wind capacity in operation, from idem. Shell has continued to own wind farms in the United States and one offshore plant in the Netherlands since an earlier foray into the wind power industry; now the company is returning because of the low price of oil, from Steve Sawyer, GWEC, personal communication with REN21, April Rosatom from FTI Consulting, op.
In the United States, rotor diameters, turbine nameplate capacity and hub height have increased significantly over the years; the average capacity factor in of projects built in reached In , the average size delivered to market was 1, kW, from Feng Zhao et al. Average size delivered to market based on measured rated capacity was 1, kW in , from Navigant Research, World Market Update International Wind Energy Development.
March , Executive Summary. The average capacity of turbines installed in Germany in increased to 2. The average capacity of turbines onshore and offshore installed in Germany was 3. Their share was Second half of from Nghiem, op. A Global Outlook New Delhi: GWEC, December , p. The distance from shore and water depth of projects under construction in Europe during averaged 44 kilometres up from
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