Pergamon Altar

Der grosse Marmoraltar von Pergamon , Berlin , p. Or learning new words is more your thing? Today, outside of Portugal and Spain, breeding, showing and registration of both Lusitanos and Andalusians are often closely linked.

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Today, Lusitanos are seen in internationdisciplines, including high-level combined driving competition. In , there was a Lusitano on the World Equestrian Games bronze-winning dressage team that went on to collect a silver medal at the Summer Olympics. The Belgian Brasseur took the gold medal in four-in-hand driving at the same competition with a team composed solely of Lusitanos.

They are still used for mounted bullfighting today, in a form where the bull is not killed and it is considered a disgrace to the rider if the horse is injured. Horses bred for this sport must be agile and calm, remaining in the control of the rider even when confronted by a bull. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Alter Real. This article is about the breed of horse. For the Portuguese music theorist, see Vicente Lusitano. International Museum of the Horse. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Journal of Archaeological Science. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics. Lusitano Horse Association of Australasia. Escola Portuguesa de Arte Equestre. Andalusian Horse Association of Australasia.

Horse breeds of the Iberian peninsula. Horse breeds thought to originate wholly or partly within the Iberian peninsula. Some have complex or obscure histories, so inclusion here does not necessarily imply that a breed is predominantly or exclusively Iberian. List of horse breeds. List of donkey breeds Donkey Zebra Onager. Route of the Bull. Estoc Montera Muleta Traje de luces.

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Next to her, her mother, the Titan Dione , is fighting, as well as her small son, Eros. The next two figures are uncertain. They are most likely the twins Castor and Pollux. Castor is being grabbed from behind by a Giant who bites him in the arm, whereupon his brother hastens to his assistance. The next three pairs of fighters are associated with Ares, the god of war. It is uncertain who they depict.

First, a god is about to hurl a tree trunk; in the middle a winged goddess thrusts her sword into an opponent, and third, a god fights a Giant in armor. The next god was long considered to be Nyx ; in the meantime it is assumed that it is one of the Erinyes , goddesses of revenge. She is holding a vessel wrapped in snakes, ready to hurl it. Next, two other personifications are fighting. The next group of fighters shows a "lion goddess" said to be Ceto.

This group does not immediately follow the Moirai; there is a gap which probably held another pair of fighters. They may have been Ceto's children, the Graeae.

Ceto was the mother of several monsters, including a whale Greek: Ketos who rises at her feet. The north frieze closes with the god of the sea Poseidon , who rises up out of the ocean with a team of seahorses.

The next scene in the sequence is the north risalit with the ocean gods. The frieze narrates in chronological order the life of Telephus , one of the heroes of Greek mythology; the legend is also known from written records, for example in the tragedies of Aischylos , Sophocles and Euripides from the 5th century BC. Since there was only a limited amount of space available in the upper, internal courtyard where the actual fire altar was located, the Telephus frieze was sculpted on slabs that was shallower than in the case of the Gigantomachy.

Its dimensions were also more modest and its arrangement was on a smaller scale. The height was 1. The frieze was originally painted, but no significant traces of color remain. There were several technical innovations for the time: After restoration in the mids it was discovered that the formerly assumed chronological sequence was in some cases incorrect.

The installation was accordingly rearranged, but the original numbering of the 51 relief panels in the Pergamon Museum was retained. For example, the resorting led to moving what had formerly been regarded as the first panel to a location following panel Not all panels survived, so there are a few gaps in the presentation of the story. Of the original 74 panels, only about 47 whole or partial panels survived. Panels 37 and 43 are not on display as part of the frieze for lack of space.

The following list reflects the sequence after reassembly in Panels 2,3 - 2: At the court of King Aleus ; 3: Panels 4,5,6 — 4: The infant Telephus is abandoned in the wilderness; 5 and 6: Panel 10 — King Teuthras finds Auge stranded on the shore. Panels 13, 32, 33 and 14 — Telephus voyages by ship to Mysia in Asia Minor. Panels 39 and 40 — Telephus asks Agamemnon to heal him.

Panel 42 — Telephus threatens to kill Orestes, whom he took hostage to force Agamemnon to heal him. On the roof of the altar there were various small statues of gods, teams of horses, centaurs, and lion griffins. The finds have not yet been unambiguously described by archaeologists as to their function and placement. On the north wall of the altar sanctuary a 64 meter long pedestal was also found, richly adorned with statues.

How extensively the altar area was furnished with bronze and marble statues is still unknown. But it is certain that the embellishments must have been extraordinarily rich and have represented a major expenditure for the donors.

The upper floor above the Gigantomachy housing the Telephus frieze also had an encircling portico. There were possibly additional statues between the columns. This theory is supported by odd sculptures of women among the finds; they may have personified the cities of the Pergamene kingdom. It is assumed that there were no statues or other decorations on the actual fire altar, but a canopy was possibly installed there in Roman times. At many places in the Gigantomachy frieze, other Greek works of art can be recognized as having served as models.

For example, Apollo with his idealized stance and good looks recalls a classical statue by the sculptor Leochares, produced about years before the frieze and famous already in antiquity; a Roman copy has survived and is now in the Vatican Museum The Belvedere Apollo. The important group which includes Zeus and Athena moving in opposite directions recalls the scene showing the struggle between Athena and Poseidon on the western pediment of the Parthenon.

Such allusions are not accidental since Pergamon considered itself to be something like a reborn Athens. The frieze on its part also influenced later works of classical antiquity.

The most famous example is the Laokoon Group mentioned above, which was created about twenty years after the Pergamon relief, as Bernard Andreae could show. The artists who produced the statue group were in the direct tradition of the creator of the relief, or may indeed even have participated in crafting the frieze. Long discussed but so far unresolved is the question of how many artists participated in producing the Gigantomachy.

Just as disputed is the extent to which the character of individual artists can be identified in this work of art. There is agreement that at least the basic design of the frieze was the work of a single artist. In view of its consistency down to the level of details, the plan must have been worked out to its smallest elements; nothing had been left to chance. Each of the pairs of fighters is individually arranged.

Although scholars have certainly ascertained differences that can be attributed to individual artists, given the coherence of the whole frieze it is remarkable that these differences are almost irrelevant when the work is viewed in its entirety. This is substantiated, for example, by the inscriptions of artists from Athens and Rhodes.

The sculptors were permitted to sign their sections of the frieze on the lower molding, but only a few such inscriptions have been found. Thus no conclusions can be drawn about the number of participating artists. Only one inscription on the south risalit survived in a manner which permitted attribution.

When analyzing the various inscriptions it could be determined on the basis of the typeface that there was an older and a younger sculptor generation at work, which makes the coherence of the entire frieze all the more remarkable. If that is the case, an extrapolation suggests at least 40 participating sculptors. A research by Patrice Foutakis tried to bring evidence on whether the ancient Greeks employed in their architecture the golden ratio, equal to the irrational number 1.

For this purpose, the measurements of 15 temples, 18 monumental tombs, 8 sarcophagi and 58 grave stelae were examined, going from the fifth century BC until the second century AD. The result of this research points out that the golden ratio was totally absent from Greek architecture of the fifth century BC, and almost absent for the following six centuries. Four rare examples of golden-section proportions were identified through this research in a tower, a tomb, a grave stele and in the Great Altar of Pergamon.

On the two frontal parts of the frieze facing the observer standing in front of the monument, the height to length ratio is 2. The city of Pergamon was on excellent terms with Athens, its kings venerated Attic art and offered gifts to the Parthenon, and both cities had the same goddess, Athena, as a protector.

The temple of Athena Polias Nikephoros in Pergamon, a few meters away from the Great Altar, also had a copy of the chryselephantine statue of Athena made by Phidias for the Parthenon. The two columned constructions flanking the frontal staircase of the Great Altar have the shape of two Ionic temples.

The proportions of each of these temples are: Height with the entablature 2. When the visitor came up to the top of the staircase and went through the portikon columns, he entered an interior court measuring, within the colonnade surrounding the court, In other words, according to P.

Foutakis, the artists of this Altar wanted the spectator standing on the axis in front of the staircase to see two Ionic temples following the golden ratio, and, coming through these temples, to enter a courtyard proportioned to the golden ratio. The well-known political and cultural antagonism between Pergamon and Alexandria, the city where Euclid was active and defined his geometrical proposition of the extreme and mean ratio, could have contributed to the rapid spread of this proposition to Pergamon, a city already open to new achievements in science, sculpture, architecture and politics.

The German Empire, which subsidized the excavation not least for reasons of prestige, quickly began to monopolize the altar and other archaeological relics. The "Jubilee Exhibition of the Berlin Academy of Arts" in May and June devoted a 13, square meter site to archaeological acquisitions from recent excavations in Olympia and Pergamon. But since the Greek government had not given permission to export art treasures, no finds from Greece could be shown there.

Instead, a "Temple of Pergamon" was constructed. Part of the exhibit was a model of the city of Pergamon in the 2nd century AD reflecting the state of knowledge at that time. Possibly the most striking example of the reception of this work of art is the Berlin museum which has on view a reconstruction of the altar. The design of the Pergamon Museum was inspired by the gigantic form of the altar.

The partial reconstruction of the edifice does not however reflect what was the main side in antiquity, the eastern wall, but rather the opposite, western side with the stairway. Opinions about this reconstruction, including the installation of the rest of the frieze on the walls surrounding the central exhibition room, were not entirely favorable.

Critics spoke of a frieze "turned inside out like a sleeve" and of "theatrics". In Nazi Germany this type of architecture later served as a model worthy of emulation. The friezes by the sculptor Arno Breker were, however, never executed. Referencing this architectural form was not least in tune with the ideological concepts of the Nazis; an altar prompted ideas of being ready to sacrifice and heroic death.

For the Nazis, the Pergamon Altar and Kreis' two testimonies of Nazi architecture were all "cultic buildings". The Nazis also attempted to appropriate the message behind the altar frieze, namely the victory of good over evil. Peter Weiss begins his novel, The Aesthetics of Resistance , with a description of the Gigantomachy frieze. Some of the media and population criticized the use of the Pergamon Altar as a backdrop for the application submitted by the city of Berlin to host the Olympic summer games in The Senate of Berlin had invited the members of the IOC executive committee to a banquet taking place in front of the altar.

That called to mind Berlin's application to host the games in In , the Pergamon 2nd Life project, a fictional, artistically inspired photographic reconstruction of the Gigantomachy frieze, celebrated its public world premiere in the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow. This article is based on a translation of the equivalent article "Pergamonaltar" in the German Wikipedia. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Datierung und Bedeutung des Telephosfrieses im Zusammenhang mit den übrigen Stiftungen der Ataliden von Pergamon , in: Die Antikensammlung im Pergamonmuseum und in Charlottenburg.

Geschichte und Bauten einer antiken Metropole , Primus, Darmstadt , p. Seine Geschichte, Entdeckung und Rekonstruktion. Pergamo ara marmorea magna, alta pedes quadraginta cum maximis sculpturis; continet autem gigantomachiam. Der Altar von Pergamon. Hellenistische und römische Architektur. The second panel, showing a dead Giant, had been built into a Gothic ruin in Fawley Court Buckinghamshire , see: The Thunderbolt of Zeus: It helped that the Ottoman Empire was at that time weak on the domestic front and grateful for Bismarck's mediating role at the Congress of Berlin.

Die neue Präsentation nach Restaurierung des Telephosfrieses , p. Pergamon-Altar soll in neuem Glanz erstrahlen. Eine Erhöhung der Sparquote Warum sollte die langfristige Wachstumsrate unabhängig von Bernd Görzig, Wolfgang Kirner, Anstatt die Übereinstimmung der gleich- gewichtigen und natürlichen Wachstumsrate durch n als Variable zu erreichen, wird nun die Möglichkeit der Anpassung beider Wachstumsraten durch eine variable Sparquote untersucht Kaldor, N.

Crossing the river by touching the Erläutern Sie anhand einer Grafik! Die Sparquote ist definiert als Anteil des Sparens am Einkommen.

Angenommen das Volkseinkommen beträgt 1. Sparquoten in Deutschland Die Kluft zwischen Arm und Reich wird tiefer: Das zeigen Zahlen zu den Sparquoten. Spitzenverdiener legen im Schnitt Auch liegt die Sparquote der privaten Haushalte mit 9,7 Prozent leicht unter dem Durchschnitt seit der Wiedervereinigung, so dass von einer Deutsche sparen trotz Niedrigzins munter weiter.

Die Sparquote der privaten Haushalte sank auf 9,4 Vorquartal:

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