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State and Nation-Building in Pakistan:

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noun. the act of consuming, as by use, decay, or destruction. the amount consumed: the high consumption of gasoline. Economics. the using up of goods and services having an exchangeable value.

During his reign, in in the Mughal Empire, Muhammad Salih Tahtawi of Thatta created a seamless celestial globe with Arabic and Persian inscriptions using a wax casting method. Sindh was home to very famous wealthy merchant-rulers such as Mir Bejar of Sindh, whose great wealth had attracted the close ties with the Sultan bin Ahmad of Oman.

In the year , the Kalhora Nawabs were authorized in a firman by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb to administer subah Sindh. From to , Marathas collected Chauth or tributes from Sindh. In , Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro brought stability in Sindh, he reorganized and independently defeated the Marathas and their prominent vassal the Rao of Kuch in the Thar Desert and returned victoriously.

After the Sikhs annexed Multan , the Kalhora Dynasty supported counterattacks against the Sikhs and defined their borders. Caravan of merchants in the Indus River Valley. Talpurs, who learned the Sindhi language, settled in northern Sindh.

Very soon they united all the Baloch tribes of Sindh and formed a confederacy against the Kalhora Dynasty. The Talpur Baloch soon gained power, overthrowing the Kalhora after the Battle of Halani to conquer and rule Sindh and other parts of present-day Pakistan, from to As a result, the following year the Maratha Empire declared war on Sindh and Berar Subah , during which Arthur Wellesley took a leading role causing much early suspicion between the Emirs of Sindh and the British Empire.

Shortly afterwards, Hoshu Sheedi commanded another army at the Battle of Dubbo , where 5, Baloch were killed. The first Agha Khan helped the British in their conquest of Sindh. As result, he was granted a lifetime pension. Within weeks, Charles Napier and his forces occupied Sindh. His burial place is not known. During the British period, railways, printing presses and bridges were introduced in the province.

Writers like Mirza Kalich Beg compiled and traced the literary history of Sindh. Although Sindh had a culture of religious syncretism, communal harmony and tolerance due to Sindh's strong Sufi culture in which both Sindhi Muslims and Sindhi Hindus partook, [58] the mostly Muslim peasantry was oppressed by the Hindu moneylending class and also by the landed Muslim elite.

In that time period Sindh emerged at the forefront of the Khilafat cause. By Sindh was separated from the Bombay Presidency. Elections in resulted in local Sindhi Muslim parties winning the bulk of seats. By the mids the Muslim League gained a foothold in the province and after winning over the support of local Sufi pirs , [63] came to have the support of the overwhelming majority of Sindhi Muslims for its campaign to create Pakistan. At the time of Partition, there were 1,, Hindu Sindhis, dominating the province's upper middle class.

There was very little communal violence in Sindh, in comparison to Punjab. This sparked riots in Hyderabad and later in Karachi, although less than Hindu were killed in Sindh between as Sindhi Muslims largely resisted calls to turn against their Hindu neighbours.

Sindh has the 2nd highest Human Development Index out of all of Pakistan's provinces at 0. The population of Sindh increased 2. Sindh was the least gainer of population among provinces during this period.

More than half of the population are urban dwellers, mainly found in Karachi , Hyderabad , Sukkur , Mirpurkhas , Nawabshah District and Larkana. Sindhi is the sole official language of Sindh since the 19th century. The Sindhis as a whole are composed of original descendants of an ancient population known as Sammaat , sub-groups related to the Baloch origin are found in interior Sindh and to a lesser extent Sindhis of Pashtun origins.

In August , before the partition of India, the total population of Sindh was 38,87, out of which 28,32, were Muslims and 10,15, were Hindus [69]. This is conventionally defined as a period extending from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries, [38] [39] [40] or alternatively, from about Professor Baloch said the climate of Balochistan was very cold and the region was inhabitable during the winter so the Baloch people in waves migrated and settled in Sindh and Punjab.

One popular legend which highlights the strong Sufi presence in Sindh is that , Sufi saints and mystics are buried on Makli Hill near Thatta.

In the 16th century two Sufi tareeqat orders - Qadria and Naqshbandia - were introduced in Sindh. Sindh also has Pakistan's highest percentage of Hindu residents, with 7. First languages of Sindh according to Census [76].

Sindhi like Punjabi is an Indo-European language , both are linguistically considered to be the daughter languages of Sanskrit. Balochi and Seraiki have also influenced Sindhi which also accommodates substantial Persian , Turkish and Arabic words. Sindhi is written in a modified Arabic script.

Today, Sindhi in Pakistan is heavily influenced by Urdu with more borrowed Perso-Arabic elements, while Sindhi in India is influenced by Hindi and borrows more elements from Sanskrit. Other languages in the province include Gujarati [77] and Parkari Koli sometimes called just Parkari ; a language is spoken by only , natives of Sindh according to a estimate.

Karachi is populated by Muhajirs who speak Urdu. Sindh is in the western corner of South Asia, bordering the Iranian plateau in the west. In the centre is a fertile plain along the Indus River. The province is mostly arid with scant vegetation except for the irrigated Indus Valley. The dwarf palm, Acacia Rupestris kher , and Tecomella undulata lohirro trees are typical of the western hill region. In the Indus valley, the Acacia nilotica babul babbur is the most dominant and occurs in thick forests along the Indus banks.

The Azadirachta indica neem nim , Zizyphys vulgaris bir ber , Tamarix orientalis jujuba lai and Capparis aphylla kirir are among the more common trees. Mango, date palms and the more recently introduced banana, guava, orange and chiku are the typical fruit-bearing trees. The coastal strip and the creeks abound in semi-aquatic and aquatic plants and the inshore Indus delta islands have forests of Avicennia tomentosa timmer and Ceriops candolleana chaunir trees.

Water lilies grow in abundance in the numerous lake and ponds, particularly in the lower Sindh region. Among the wild animals, the Sindh ibex sareh , blackbuck , wild sheep Urial or gadh and wild bear are found in the western rocky range. The leopard is now rare and the Asiatic cheetah extinct. The Pirrang large tiger cat or fishing cat of the eastern desert region is also disappearing.

Deer occur in the lower rocky plains and in the eastern region, as do the striped hyena charakh , jackal , fox , porcupine , common gray mongoose and hedgehog.

The Sindhi phekari, red lynx or Caracal cat, is found in some areas. Phartho hog deer and wild bear occur, particularly in the central inundation belt. There are bats, lizards and reptiles, including the cobra, lundi viper and the mysterious Sindh krait of the Thar region, which is supposed to suck the victim's breath in his sleep. Some unusual sightings of Asian cheetah occurred in near the Balochistan border in Kirthar Mountains. The rare houbara bustard find Sindh's warm climate suitable to rest and mate.

Unfortunately, it is hunted by locals and foreigners. Crocodiles are rare and inhabit only the backwaters of the Indus, eastern Nara channel and Karachi backwater. Besides a large variety of marine fish, the plumbeous dolphin, the beaked dolphin, rorqual or blue whale and skates frequent the seas along the Sindh coast.

The Indus river dolphin is among the most endangered species in Pakistan and is found in the part of the Indus river in northern Sindh. Hog deer and wild bear occur, particularly in the central inundation belt. Although Sindh has a semi arid climate, through its coastal and riverine forests, its huge fresh water lakes and mountains and deserts, Sindh supports a large amount of varied wildlife.

Due to the semi-arid climate of Sindh the left out forests support an average population of jackals and snakes. The national parks established by the Government of Pakistan in collaboration with many organizations such as World Wide Fund for Nature and Sindh Wildlife Department support a huge variety of animals and birds. The KNP supports Sindh ibex , wild sheep urial and black bear along with the rare leopard. There are also occasional sightings of The Sindhi phekari, ped lynx or Caracal cat.

Between July and November when the monsoon winds blow onshore from the ocean, giant olive ridley turtles lay their eggs along the seaward side. The turtles are protected species.

After the mothers lay and leave them buried under the sands the SWD and WWF officials take the eggs and protect them until they are hatched to keep them from predators. Sindh lies in a tropical to subtropical region; it is hot in the summer and mild to warm in winter.

The annual rainfall averages about seven inches, falling mainly during July and August. The southwest monsoon wind begins in mid-February and continues until the end of September, whereas the cool northerly wind blows during the winter months from October to January. Sindh lies between the two monsoons —the southwest monsoon from the Indian Ocean and the northeast or retreating monsoon, deflected towards it by the Himalayan mountains —and escapes the influence of both.

The region's scarcity of rainfall is compensated by the inundation of the Indus twice a year, caused by the spring and summer melting of Himalayan snow and by rainfall in the monsoon season. Sindh is divided into three climatic regions: Siro the upper region, centred on Jacobabad , Wicholo the middle region, centred on Hyderabad , and Lar the lower region, centred on Karachi.

The thermal equator passes through upper Sindh, where the air is generally very dry. Central Sindh's temperatures are generally lower than those of upper Sindh but higher than those of lower Sindh.

Dry hot days and cool nights are typical during the summer. Lower Sindh has a damper and humid maritime climate affected by the southwestern winds in summer and northeastern winds in winter, with lower rainfall than Central Sindh. The provincial capital of Sindh is Karachi. The provincial government is led by Chief Minister who is directly elected by the popular and landslide votes ; the Governor serves as a ceremonial representative nominated and appointed by the President of Pakistan.

The administrative boss of the province who is in charge of the bureaucracy is the Chief Secretary Sindh , who is appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan. Most of the influential Sindhi tribes in the province are involved in Pakistan's politics.

In addition, Sindh's politics leans towards the left-wing and its political culture serves as a dominant place for the left-wing spectrum in the country. In metropolitan cities such as Karachi and Hyderabad , the MQM another left-wing party with the support of Muhajirs has a considerable vote bank and support. In , after the public elections, the new government decided to restore the structure of Divisions of all provinces. As a consequence, the five divisions of Sindh were restored — namely Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur, Mirpurkhas and Larkana with their respective districts.

Karachi district has been de-merged into its five original constituent districts: Recently Korangi has been upgraded to the status of sixth district of Karachi. These six districts form the Karachi Division now. Sindh has the second largest economy in Pakistan. A study commissioned by Pakistan Ministry of Planning found that urban Sindh and northern Punjab province are the most prosperous regions in Pakistan.

Performance wise, its best sector is the manufacturing sector, where its share has ranged from Endowed with coastal access, Sindh is a major centre of economic activity in Pakistan and has a highly diversified economy ranging from heavy industry and finance centred in Karachi to a substantial agricultural base along the Indus.

Manufacturing includes machine products, cement, plastics, and other goods. Sindh is Pakistan's most natural gas producing province.

Agriculture is very important in Sindh with cotton , rice , wheat , sugar cane , dates , bananas , and mangoes as the most important crops. The largest and finer quality of rice is produced in Larkano district. The following is a chart of the education market of Sindh estimated by the government in The rich culture, art and architectural landscape of Sindh have fascinated historians. The culture, folktales, art and music of Sindh form a mosaic of human history.

The traditions of Sindhi craftwork reflect the cumulative influence of years of invaders and settlers, whose modes of art were eventually assimilated into the culture. The elegant floral and geometrical designs that decorate everyday objects —whether of clay, metal, wood, stone or fabric— can be traced to Muslim influence. Though chiefly an agricultural and pastoral province, Sindh has a reputation for ajraks , pottery, leatherwork, carpets, textiles and silk cloths which, in design and finish, are matchless.

The chief articles produced are blankets, coarse cotton cloth soosi , camel fittings, metalwork, lacquered work, enamel, gold and silver embroidery. Hala is famous for pottery and tiles; Boobak for carpets; Nasirpur, Gambat and Thatta for cotton lungees and khes.

Other popular crafts include the earthenware of Johi, the metal vessels of Shikarpur, the ralli quilt , embroidery and leather articles of Tharparkar, and the lacquered work of Kandhkot. Prehistoric finds from archaeological sites like Mohenjo-daro , engravings in graveyards, and the architectural designs of Makli and other tombs have provided ample evidence of the people's literary and musical traditions.

Painting and calligraphy have developed in recent times. Some young trained men have taken up commercial art. Sindh has a rich heritage of traditional handicraft that has evolved over the centuries. Perhaps the most professed exposition of Sindhi culture is in the handicrafts of Hala , a town some 30 kilometres from Hyderabad. Hala's artisans manufacture high-quality and impressively priced wooden handicrafts, textiles, paintings, handmade paper products, and blue pottery.

Lacquered wood works known as Jandi, painting on wood, tiles, and pottery known as Kashi, hand weaved textiles including khadi , susi , and ajraks are synonymous with Sindhi culture preserved in Hala's handicraft. SMEDA is publishing a directory of the artisans so that exporters can directly contact them. Hala is the home of a remarkable variety of traditional crafts and traditional handicrafts that carry with them centuries of skill that has woven magic into the motifs and designs used.

Sindh is known the world over for its handicrafts and arts. Referring to the lacquer work on wood locally known as Jandi, T. Posten an English traveller who visited Sindh in the early 19th century asserted that the articles of Hala could be compared with exquisite specimens of China. Technological improvements such as the spinning wheel charkha and treadle pai-chah in the weaver's loom were gradually introduced and the processes of designing, dyeing and printing by block were refined.

The refined, lightweight, colourful, washable fabrics from Hala became a luxury for people used to the woollens and linens of the age. The ajrak has existed in Sindh since the birth of its civilization. The colour blue is predominantly used for ajraks.

Sindh was traditionally a large producer of indigo and cotton cloth and both used to be exported to the Middle East. The ajrak is a mark of respect when it is given to an honoured guest or friend. In Sindh, it is most commonly given as a gift at Eid, at weddings, or on other special occasions like a homecoming. The ralli also known as rilli, rehli, rallee, gindi or other names , or patchwork quilt, is another Sindhi icon and part of the heritage and culture.

Most Sindhi homes have many rallis—one for each member of the family and a few spare for guests. The ralli is made with small pieces of cloth of geometrical shapes sewn together to create intricate designs.

They may be used as a bedspread or a blanket and are often given as gifts to friends and guests. They provide training to women artisans in the interior of Sindh so they get a source of income. They promote their products under the name of "Crafts Forever". Many women in rural Sindh are skilled in the production of caps. Sindhi caps are manufactured commercially on a small scale at New Saeedabad and Hala New. These are in demand with visitors from Karachi and other places; however, these manufacturing units have a limited production capacity.

Sindhi people began celebrating Sindhi Topi Day on December 6, , to preserve the historical culture of Sindh by wearing Ajrak and Sindhi topi. Islamic architecture is quite prominent in the province; its numerous mausoleums include the ancient Shahbaz Qalander mausoleum.

Ranikot Fort , one of the largest forts in the world. West bank of the River Indus. National Museum of Pakistan. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Sind disambiguation. Expansion under Muhammad, — Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, — Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, — Anlegen wie ein Profi: Mit dem Bernecker Börsenkompass hängen Sie den Dax ab! Partnerangebot Jetzt 30 Tage kostenlos testen! Und auch im neuen Jahr stehen die Zeichen für einen florierenden Konsum weiterhin positiv, die Deutsche Bank rechnet mit knapp über einem Prozent Zuwachs.

Die Inflationsrate von zuletzt 1,9 Prozent sollte auch dieses Jahr mit einem voraussichtlichen Durchschnittswert von 1,7 Prozent die Steigerung der Kaufkraft durch eine durchschnittliche Gehaltssteigerung von rund drei Prozent nicht vollständig absorbieren. Zudem werden die gesetzlichen Renten ebenfalls kräftig ansteigen und die beschlossenen Steuersenkungen in Kraft treten.

Waren es früher noch die Exporte, wird der private Konsum auch einer der wichtigsten Haupttreiber der wirtschaftlichen Expansion bleiben. Trotz vorbildlichem Konsumverhalten lief die Wirtschaft im vergangenen Jahr nicht optimal. Erlebte der Dax Anfang noch ein Allzeithoch von über Punkten, verlor er bis zum Jahresende weit über 20 Prozentpunkte. Der Wirtschaftsboom wurde durch ein weltweit abgeschwächtes Wachstum ausgebremst.

Es sind unruhige Zeiten auch am deutschen Kapitalmarkt. In was traut man sich unter diesen Bedingungen eigentlich noch zu investieren? Haushaltsartikel, Lebensmittel, Pflegeprodukte — auf diese Dinge sind die Menschen angewiesen.

Die Aktien solcher Hersteller sind daher vor allem eines: Auch Aktien jener Konsumgüterhersteller, mit Produkten, die über den täglichen Bedarf hinausgehen, gelten in Ländern mit geringen Arbeitslosenquoten, hohen Einkommen und breitem Wohlstand als ein sicheres Investment. Gerade in Zeiten der niedrigen Zinsen stellen Konsumaktien eine attraktive Alternative zu Anleihen dar.

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Mit über Filialen in Europa gilt es als der dortige Marktführer. Günter Fielmann erkannte schon vor über 46 Jahren die Marktlücke von Kassenbrillen, von denen es seinerzeit für Erwachsene gerade einmal sechs Modelle aus Kunststofffassungen gab. Was viele nicht wissen: Auch der Verkauf von Hörgeräten lässt bei dem Optiker mittlerweile die Kassen klingeln. Fielmann verdient sich seinen Platz in der Kategorie der Konsumaktien vor allem als zuverlässiger Dividendenzahler, der diese bereits zum Mal in Folge erhöht hat.

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Der Fraport AG kommt das gerade recht: In den ersten drei Quartalen stiegen die Passagierzahlen allein in Frankfurt um 8,4 Prozent auf 53 Millionen an. Analysten rechnen für das abgeschlossene Geschäftsjahr mit einer Ebitda-Marge von 34 Prozent und auch im laufenden Geschäftsjahr mit steigenden Gewinnen und Umsätzen.

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In einer über hundert Jahre andauernden Unternehmensgeschichte ist der Konzern besonders stolz auf sein Reinheitsgebot, das besagt, auf jegliche Farbstoffe, Aromazusätze, Geschmacksverstärker usw. Die Bremerhavener haben ihr Geschäft weiterhin auf den österreichischen, osteuropäischen und auch auf den italienischen Markt ausgeweitet.

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