Ministry of National Defence (East Germany)


Sie stellt eine der beiden wesentlichen existierenden Theorien der soziologischen Elitenforschung dar, in deren Zentrum politische Führer und deren Machtausübung stehen.

Account Options


A set-top box that can be configured as a separate ballast to a TV that will play an important role in future digital television and thereby perform different tasks depending on the application. Zunächst kann die Set-Top-Box bei der Verwendung von herkömmlichen analogen Fernsehgeräten dafür eingesetzt werden, ein ankommendes digitales Fernsehsignal in ein analoges Signal umzuwandeln. First, the set-top box can be used for in the use of conventional analog television sets to convert an incoming digital television signal into an analog signal.

Weiterhin kann eine Aufgabe darin bestehen, individuell Sendezeiten in Pay-TV-Kanälen für einen Anwender freizugeben, sofern dieser für einen bestimmten Zeitraum oder eine bestimmte Sendung, gezahlt hat. Furthermore, a task may be to individually release broadcast times in pay-TV channels for a user, if it has paid for a certain period or a particular program.

By combining with the inventive control unit, a user can eg. This allows the TV following the setting is automatically turned on and set to the correct channel, which results in that the user missed this program in any way. Here, of course, provided that the user is in the premises where the television is located.

Im weiteren ist es zur Vorprogrammierung der Steuereinheit besonders bevorzugt, wenn die zur Voreinstellung einer Sendung notwendigen Informationen, wie beispielsweise der Sendekanal sowie das Datum, die Zeit und die Länge einer Sendung bereits mit einer zeitlich vorher ausgestrahlten Programmankündigung übertragen werden, die Einstellinformationen nach dem Empfang als solche identifiziert werden und durch Eingabemittel eine Programmierung der Steuereinheit mit als Eingabeinformationen identifizierten Daten ausgeführt wird.

Furthermore, it is particularly preferred for pre-programming the control unit, if necessary to preset a broadcast information, such as the transmission channel and the date, time and length of a program is already being transmitted with a time previously broadcast program announcement, the setting information after receiving be identified as such and a programming of the control unit with information identified as the input data is carried out by input means.

In this way, the Vorprogrammiervorgang limited only to the fact that the input means are actuated by a user during the broadcast of a program announcement.

Dies kann im einfachsten Fall durch einen Knopfdruck erfolgen. This can be done in the simplest case by a push of a button. The pre-programmed mission need not necessarily be received on the same channel as the program announcement is broadcast. Dies ist insbesondere für die Anwendung dieser Art der Vorprogrammierung bei reinen Trailer-Kanälen wichtig. This is particularly important for the application of this type of pre-programming important in pure Trailer channels.

Ebenfalls können in einer Programmtafel einer Programmankündigung mehrere zeitlich aufeinanderfolgende bzw. Also a plurality of temporally consecutive or parallel in different channels transmissions may be announced in a program chart of a program announcement.

Für die Vorprogrammierung sollten in diesem Fall die Eingabemittel über eine Selektionsmöglichkeit verfügen. For the pre-programming in this case, the input means should have a selection option. Die Eingabemittel können beispielsweise ein numerisches Tastenfeld und eine zusätzliche Taste umfassen. The input means may include, for example, a numeric keypad and an extra button. Um damit aus den Möglichkeiten der in der Ankündigung aufgelisteten Sendungen eine auszuwählen, kann z.

To select order of the opportunities of the programs listed in the announcement one such can. As the additional buttons are pressed and standing for first in the list show a 1 or enter for the second ranked position a 2, etc.. Die Einstellinformationen der Programmankündigung können dabei nacheinander mit ausgestrahlt werden, wobei durch die Nummernauswahl nur die Einstellinformationen mit einer richtigen Listennummer in die Steuereinheit eingeschrieben werden.

The setting information of the program announcement can be broadcast with one after it, with only the setting information is written with a proper list number in the control unit by the number selection. The knowledge that a user must have the programming of its control unit to handle it successful and stress-free, thus reduced the invention to an absolute minimum.

A particularly preferred apparatus for carrying out the just-mentioned method steps of the invention for pre-programming a control unit includes means with for receiving necessary to preset a broadcast information of a time previously broadcast program announcement and recognition means for identifying the information as a setting and input means for initiating the programming of the control unit as setting information identified data.

By the recognition means that the control device is erroneously programmed with data that are not setting data is avoided. For a built-in a television control unit, it is proposed to achieve a simple, inexpensive construction that the means for receiving necessary to preset a broadcast information of a time previously broadcast program announcement include the tuner unit of the television set. For a built-in set-top box control unit, that the means for receiving necessary to preset a broadcast information of a time previously broadcast program announcement include the tuner unit of the set-top box, it is proposed to achieve a simple, inexpensive construction.

To be able to use existing systems and easy to customize the programming, it is also proposed to transmit the setting information in coded form in parallel with the video and audio signal and to decode after receipt by a tuner unit with a decoding means. Vorzugsweise kann ein modifiziertes VPS-Signal übertragen werden. Preferably a modified VPS signal can be transmitted. This requires little effort because the VPS signal is already modulated at most stations.

Selbstverständlich ist jede andere Art der Verschlüsselung ebenfalls möglich. Of course, any other type of encryption is also possible. Um den Programmiervorgang weiter zu vereinfachen und von vielen Positionen im Raum aus durchführen zu können, wird im weiteren vorgeschlagen, die Eingabemittel in einer Fernbedieneinheit anzuordnen.

In order to simplify the programming process further and carry out many positions in the room, it is proposed in another to arrange the input means in a remote control unit.

In order to prevent double assignment of the control unit for a certain period, it is also proposed that means are provided for outputting a warning signal for the case when the preset time of a einzuspeichernden consignment period of transmission start to broadcast end from a defined start time already in use on the sending date , D. To obtain a cost-effective and easy to use device for pre-programming, it is proposed in the further in that the input means comprise a arranged in the remote control unit button.

Ein Ausführungsbeispiel der Erfindung ist in den Zeichnungen dargestellt und im folgenden unter Nennung von weiteren Einzelheiten und Vorteilen näher erläutert. An embodiment of the invention is illustrated in the drawings and explained in the following, making note of further details and benefits in more detail.

Es zeigen Show it. Das Ausführungsbeispiel aus Fig. The embodiment of Fig. Auf dem Fernsehgerät 1 sieht ein Zuschauer die Programmankündigung einer z. On the TV 1, a viewer sees the program announcement of such. The high-frequency television signal of the program announcement also includes a modified VPS signal in addition to the conventional video and audio information. The modified VPS signal contains all the information for presetting the transferred in a few days shipment.

Das Fernsehgerät 1 empfängt dieses Signal mittels einer Tunereinheit 4 zusammen mit dem Bild- und Tonsignal z. The television set 1 receives this signal by means of a tuner unit 4 together with the video and audio signal z. Subsequently, the decoder 6 performs decoding by the modified VPS signal.

Now it must be ensured that the data of this signal not shown by means of a first identification device to be recognized as setting information and, moreover, not z. As already influencing stored in the timer unit of a VCR recording information. Dies könnte unter Umständen der Fall sein, wenn in der Timereinheit des Videorecorders bereits die in der Programmankündigung vorgestellte Sendung zur Aufnahme programmiert ist. This could be the case in circumstances where the presented in the program announcement broadcast is programmed to record already in the timer unit of the VCR.

Hätte das modifizierte VPS-Signal das gleiche Format wie das gewöhnliche VPS-Signal, würde eine unerwünschte Aufnahme gestartet, sofern der Videorecorder in Aufnahmebereitstellung wäre und zufälligerweise die Tunereinheit des Videorecorders auf dem gleichen Kanal wie die Programmankündigung gesendet wird, stünde, da der Videorecorder das VPS-Signal der Programmankündigung fälschlicherweise als das richtige identifizieren wird.

Had the modified VPS signal in the same format as the normal VPS signal would started unwanted recording when the video recorder would be in receiving provisioning and coincidentally the tuner unit of the video recorder on the same channel as the program announcement is sent, would, as the video recorder, the VPS signal the program announcement is incorrectly identified as the right one.

To rule out such effects and to allow easy recognition of Einstelldatensignalen, a number of changes in the VPS signal are conceivable. Eine Möglichkeit soll weiter unten beschrieben werden. One way to be described below. Back to the viewer who sees the program announcement for a future current program and this is so interesting that he wants to see absolutely.

In diesem Fall wird der Zuschauer ein Eingabemittel 7 betätigen. In this case, the viewer will operate an input means. This may be a push button, for example, which is arranged on the remote controller. The control unit thereby receives z. Datum, Zeit und Länge sowie den Fernsehkanal der in einigen Tagen ausgestrahlten Sendung und ist somit entsprechend vorprogrammiert. As date, time and length, as well as the television channel of the broadcast in a few days mission and is thus inevitable accordingly.

Zur Vermeidung einer unerwünschten Betätigung des Tasters kann dieser beispielsweise durch eine Klappe oder einen entsprechend gearteten anderen Mechanismus verriegelt sein. In order to avoid unwanted actuation of the button, it can be locked, for example, by a flap or a corresponding kind other mechanism. Also, to avoid programming errors in addition or as the sole means a confirmation of the programming process by z.

For example, be a further press are provided. Durch diese Vorgehensweise benötigt der Zuschauer keinerlei Hilfsmittel für die Programmierung, wie beispielsweise eine Fernsehprogrammzeitschrift oder ähnliches. By doing so, the viewer does not require any tools for programming, such as television program guide or the like. He also does not have to enter the complete data set in laborious typing if they know this at all without a television program guide.

New uniforms, whose cut but not colour stone grey were far closer to those of German World War II forces than to Soviet models, were introduced. Only the helmet represented a radical departure from World War II, but here too the design differed from the Soviet model. The creation of the NVA addressed both internal and external security problems. In theory at least, East German citizens could have pride in their own army.

The swift creation of the NVA as a force of more than , officers and other ranks practicing Prussian-style drill was a dramatic gesture of nationalism that was impossible for the world to ignore. The creation of the Ministry of Defense and the NVA seemingly should have been a blow to the authority and prestige of the Ministry of the Interior. The bureaucratic impact of this action was mitigated by permitting Stoph to carry both portfolios for four years. In addition, police activities, both civil and secret, remained under the Ministry of the Interior, as did the Border Police.

The Ministry of the Interior established its own Alert Units for the specific function of internal security. The Alert Units were militarily structured, fully motorized units with modern weapons and equipment. Garrisoned and trained in battalion-size units, they were capable of carrying out police tasks and other security functions. They have been used in major disturbances or in civil disasters affecting public order and safety.

Differentiation between the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of the Interior was still in progress in the s. On issue in this process was the subordination of the Border Police. Various explanations for this shift have been offered by different authorities. The official reason stressed improvement in the level of training through closer relationship with the NVA and provision for reinforcement of the Border Troops with other NVA assets.

The actual reason probably had more to do with standardization within the Warsaw Pact since similar reorganizations occurred in roughly the same time period in all the non-Soviet Warsaw Pact armies. The organization of the East German Ministry of Defense, which closely follows the pattern of the Soviet Ministry of Defense, comprises several administrations and departments, among which there appeared to be a certain amount of overlapping authority.

The chiefs of the major administrations and commands concurrently served as deputies to the defense minister. In the mids, its complement of about 4, personnel had a military-to-civilian ratio of approximately three to one, in contrast to comparable Western ministries or departments that generally have a much higher proportion of civilian employees.

Hauptstab , was led by the Chief of Staff German: The Land Forces Command German: Kommando Landstreitkräfte was established on 1 December as a management body created for the land forces. The seat was in Wildpark-West. People's Navy Command German: Kommando Volksmarine was based in Rostock-Gehlsdorf emerged from the administration of the naval forces.

It was created in spring After the subordination of the German Border Police German: Grenztruppen aus der DDR. The Civil Defense Headquarters German: Chef der Hauptverwaltung Zivilverteidigung. The governing bodies still belonged to the Ministry Headquarters, the political headquarters and the areas of Bereiche Rückwärtige Dienste Rear services and Technik und Bewaffnung equipment and armament.

The Political Headquarters German: Chefs der Politischen Hauptverwaltung. The Technology and Armament Department German: Bereich Technik und Bewaffnung , was led by the Chief of the range equipment and armament German: Chefs des Bereiches Technik und Bewaffnung. The Rear Area Services German: Chefs des Bereiches Rückwärtigen Dienste. The heads of the commands and the other governing bodies were usually also titled Deputy Minister of National Defense. This agreement marked the prominent position of the NVA.

Content of these agreements was the preferred treatment of the army in the food issue, to entering and use of forests and open spaces in the GDR. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.





Links:
Verbraucherpreisindex 2019 Lebensmittel von zu Hause weg | Handelsbilanz und Wechselkurs | Online-Verkauf | Wie viel Öl verbrauchen die Vereinigten Staaten pro Tag? | Sp 500 unternehmen liste csv | Nestle india ltd aktienkurs | Diversifiziertes Handelstestzentrum | Wo kann ich online handeln? | Effekt der Zinserhöhung auf Anleihen |