In Lower Yangtze dialects and some north-western dialects they have merged as a final glottal stop.
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Its central bank status was legally confirmed on March 18, by the 3rd Plenum of the 8th National People's Congress, and was granted a high degree of independence by an act that year. All provincial and local branches were abolished, and the PBC opened nine regional branches, whose boundaries did not correspond to local administrative boundaries.
In , the Standing Committee of the Tenth National People's Congress approved an amendment law for strengthening the role of PBC in the making and implementation of monetary policy for safeguarding the overall financial stability and provision of financial services. The top management of the PBC are composed of the governor and a certain number of deputy governors.
The PBC adopts a governor responsibility system under which the governor supervises the overall work of the PBC while the deputy governors provide assistance to the governor to fulfill his or her responsibility.
The current governor is Yi Gang. Deputy governors of the management team include: The PBC has established 9 regional branches, one each in Tianjin , Shenyang , Shanghai , Nanjing , Jinan , Wuhan , Guangzhou , Chengdu and Xi'an , 2 operations offices in Beijing and Chongqing , municipal sub-branches and county-level sub-branches. The PBC consists of 18 functional departments bureaus as below: The following enterprises and institutions are directly under the PBC: Previously, interest rates set by the bank were always divisible by nine, instead of by 25 as in the rest of the world.
PBC latest interest rate changes: Foreign-exchange reserves from From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from The People's Bank of China. Xi Jinping Communist Party leader: Xi Jinping Head of state: Xi Jinping Head of government: Li Keqiang Congress Chairman: Li Zhanshu Conference Chairman: Scientific Outlook on Development. Constitution Previous constitutions Xu Qiliang Zhang Youxia.
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People's Bank of China. Retrieved 9 December Retrieved 4 December Reforming China's State-owned Enterprises and Banks. Retrieved May 29, Archived from the original on February 20, Retrieved February 23, The "divisible by nine" rule". Retrieved December 4, Archived from the original on August 12, Retrieved August 12, Archived copy as title link. Capital control Discount rate Interest rates Money creation Open market operation Sovereign wealth fund.
List of central banks Central banks and currencies of Africa Central banks and currencies of Asia-Pacific Central banks and currencies of the Caribbean Central banks and currencies of Europe Central banks and currencies of Central America and South America. State Council of the People's Republic of China. A parallel priority was the definition of a standard national language simplified Chinese: After much dispute between proponents of northern and southern dialects and an abortive attempt at an artificial pronunciation , the National Language Unification Commission finally settled on the Beijing dialect in This standard can now be spoken intelligibly by most younger people in Mainland China and Taiwan with various regional accents.
In Hong Kong and Macau , because of their colonial and linguistic history, the sole language of education, the media, formal speech and everyday life remains the local Cantonese. Mandarin is now common and taught in many schools  but still has yet to gain traction with the local population.
In Mandarin-speaking areas such as Sichuan and Chongqing , the local dialect is the native tongue of most of the population. From an official point of view, the PRC and ROC governments maintain their own forms of the standard under different names. Comparison of dictionaries produced in the two areas will show that there are few substantial differences. However, both versions of "school-standard" Chinese are often quite different from the Mandarin varieties that are spoken in accordance with regional habits, and neither is wholly identical to the Beijing dialect.
The written forms of Standard Chinese are also essentially equivalent, although simplified characters are used in China, Singapore and Malaysia, while people in Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan generally use traditional characters. Most Han Chinese living in northern and southwestern China are native speakers of a dialect of Mandarin. The North China Plain provided few barriers to migration, leading to relative linguistic homogeneity over a wide area in northern China.
In contrast, the mountains and rivers of southern China have spawned the other six major groups of Chinese varieties, with great internal diversity, particularly in Fujian. However, the varieties of Mandarin cover a huge area containing nearly a billion people. As a result, there are pronounced regional variations in pronunciation , vocabulary , and grammar ,  and many Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible.
Most of northeastern China, except for Liaoning , did not receive significant settlements by Han Chinese until the 18th century,  and as a result the Northeastern Mandarin dialects spoken there differ little from the Beijing dialect. The frontier areas of Northwest China were colonized by speakers of Mandarin dialects at the same time, and the dialects in those areas similarly closely resemble their relatives in the core Mandarin area.
Unlike their compatriots on the southeast coast, few Mandarin speakers engaged in overseas emigration until the late 20th century, but there are now significant communities of them in cities across the world. The classification of Chinese dialects evolved during the 20th century, and many points remain unsettled.
Early classifications tended to follow provincial boundaries or major geographical features. His Mandarin group included dialects of northern and southwestern China, as well as those of Hunan and northern Jiangxi. Of Yuan's four Mandarin subgroups, the Northwestern dialects are the most diverse, particularly in the province of Shanxi.
The southern boundary of the Mandarin area, with the central Wu , Gan and Xiang groups, is weakly defined due to centuries of diffusion of northern features. Many border varieties have a mixture of features that make them difficult to classify. The boundary between Southwestern Mandarin and Xiang is particularly weak,  and in many early classifications the two were not separated. Li Rong and the Language Atlas of China treated it as a separate top-level group, but this remains controversial.
The Language Atlas of China calls the remainder of Mandarin a "supergroup", divided into eight dialect groups distinguished by their treatment of the Middle Chinese entering tone see Tones below: The Atlas also includes several unclassified Mandarin dialects spoken in scattered pockets across southeastern China, such as Nanping in Fujian and Dongfang on Hainan. Syllables consist maximally of an initial consonant, a glide, a vowel, a final, and tone.
Not every syllable that is possible according to this rule actually exists in Mandarin, as there are rules prohibiting certain phonemes from appearing with others, and in practice there are only a few hundred distinct syllables. The maximal inventory of initials of a Mandarin dialect is as follows, with bracketed pinyin spellings given for those present in the standard language: This is a stereotypical feature of southwestern Mandarin, since it is so easily noticeable. Mandarin dialects typically have relatively few vowels.
Syllabic fricatives , as in standard zi and zhi , are common in Mandarin dialects, though they also occur elsewhere. The Middle Chinese final stops have undergone a variety of developments in different Mandarin dialects see Tones below. In Lower Yangtze dialects and some north-western dialects they have merged as a final glottal stop.
In other dialects they have been lost, with varying effects on the vowel. R-coloring , a characteristic feature of Mandarin, works quite differently in the southwest. In general, no two Mandarin-speaking areas have exactly the same set of tone values, but most Mandarin-speaking areas have very similar tone distribution. The exception to this rule lies in the distribution of syllables formerly ending in a stop consonant, which are treated differently in different dialects of Mandarin.
Middle Chinese stops and affricates had a three-way distinction between tenuis, voiceless aspirate and voiced or breathy voiced consonants. In Mandarin dialects the voicing is generally lost, yielding voiceless aspirates in syllables with a Middle Chinese level tone and non-aspirates in other syllables. In traditional Chinese phonology, syllables that ended in a stop in Middle Chinese i. These final stops have disappeared in most Mandarin dialects, with the syllables distributed over the other four modern tones in different ways in the various Mandarin subgroups.
In the Beijing dialect that underlies the standard language, syllables beginning with original voiceless consonants were redistributed across the four tones in a completely random pattern. Older dictionaries such as Mathews' Chinese-English Dictionary mark characters whose pronunciation formerly ended with a stop with a superscript 5; however, this tone number is more commonly used for syllables that always have a neutral tone see below.
In Lower Yangtze dialects, a minority of Southwestern dialects e. This development is shared with Wu Chinese and is thought to represent the pronunciation of Old Mandarin. In line with traditional Chinese phonology, dialects such as Lower Yangtze and Minjiang are thus said to have five tones instead of four.
However, modern linguistics considers these syllables as having no phonemic tone at all. Although the system of tones is common across Mandarin dialects, their realization as tone contours varies widely: Mandarin dialects frequently employ neutral tones in the second syllables of words, creating syllables whose tone contour is so short and light that it is difficult or impossible to discriminate.
These atonal syllables also occur in non-Mandarin dialects, but in many southern dialects the tones of all syllables are made clear. There are more polysyllabic words in Mandarin than in all other major varieties of Chinese except Shanghainese [ citation needed ].
This is partly because Mandarin has undergone many more sound changes than have southern varieties of Chinese, and has needed to deal with many more homophones. A distinctive feature of southwestern Mandarin is its frequent use of noun reduplication , which is hardly used in Beijing.
Dialects of Mandarin agree with each other quite consistently on these pronouns. While the first and second person singular pronouns are cognate with forms in other varieties of Chinese, the rest of the pronominal system is a Mandarin innovation e. Southern Chinese varieties have borrowed from Tai ,  Austroasiatic ,  and Austronesian languages. In general, the greatest variation occurs in slang, in kinship terms, in names for common crops and domesticated animals, for common verbs and adjectives, and other such everyday terms.
The least variation occurs in "formal" vocabulary—terms dealing with science, law, or government. Chinese varieties of all periods have traditionally been considered prime examples of analytic languages , relying on word order and particles instead of inflection or affixes to provide grammatical information such as person , number , tense , mood , or case.
Although modern varieties, including the Mandarin dialects, use a small number of particles in a similar fashion to suffixes, they are still strongly analytic. The basic word order of subject—verb—object is common across Chinese dialects, but there are variations in the order of the two objects of ditransitive sentences. In northern dialects the indirect object precedes the direct object as in English , for example in the Standard Chinese sentence:. In southern dialects, as well as many southwestern and Lower Yangtze dialects, the objects occur in the reverse order.
Most varieties of Chinese use post-verbal particles to indicate aspect , but the particles used vary. Other Chinese varieties tend to use different particles, e. Especially in conversational Chinese, sentence-final particles alter the inherent meaning of a sentence. Like much vocabulary, particles can vary a great deal with regards to the locale.
Some characters in Mandarin can be combined with others to indicate a particular meaning just like prefix and suffix in English.
For example, the suffix -er which means the person who is doing the action, e. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the entire group of Mandarin Chinese language varieties.
For Standard Mandarin, the official variety, see Standard Chinese. For the administrative language of China during the Ming and Qing dynasties, see Mandarin late imperial lingua franca. Standard Chinese Putonghua, Guoyu. Mandarin area in China and Taiwan, with Jin sometimes treated as a separate group in light green.
Mandarin late imperial lingua franca. The Chinese have different languages in different provinces, to such an extent that they cannot understand each other Two of our fathers [Michele Ruggieri and Matteo Ricci] have been learning this mandarin language List of varieties of Chinese. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message.
China portal Language portal. In some cases, mutual intelligibility is not guaranteed even if the Mandarin dialects concerned belong to the same group and are spoken within the same province. As reported by a native speaker of the Zhenjiang dialect a Jianghuai Lower Yangtze Mandarin dialect spoken in the Jiangsu province , it is impossible for her to understand the Nantong dialect another Jianghuai Mandarin dialect spoken around kilometers away in the same province.
Retrieved 28 March For purposes of this Law, the standard spoken and written Chinese language means Putonghua a common speech with pronunciation based on the Beijing dialect and the standardized Chinese characters.
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