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A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed. In the black, red and gold tricolour, the colours of the 19th century liberal revolutionaries advocated by the political left and centre, was adopted rather than the previous black, white and red of Imperial Germany. They have gracile and muscular bodies, strong flexible forelimbs and retractable claws for holding prey, dental and cranial adaptations for a strong bite, and often have characteristic striped or spotted coat patterns for camouflage. As the song was written before German unification, there was never an intention to deliniate borders of Germany as a nation-state.
Gas decompression damage is a major cause of rubber seal failure in high pressure gas service. This paper gives an overview of the features of this phenomenon as it relates to oilfield operations, and offers advice on how to avoid it, based on BP field experience and laboratory testing. Damage caused by gas decompression can be qualitatively understood by combining fundamental transport properties of gases within rubber with fracture mechanics.
Limited predictive modelling capability is now available. Gas decompression damage of rubber seals can potentially occur in any dry gas handling process, but generally occurs in service pressures above - psi. BP experience shows that most decompression failures are caused by the use of either large section seals, soft materials, or non-decompression resistant materials. As a result, decompression damage can generally be avoided by the appropriate consideration of a number of parameters, including seal material, seal size, seal constraint, and decompression rate.
Project specifications should identify services where gas decompression may occur and clearly state in the requirements to avoid seal failure, as illustrated in this paper by seal selection guidelines taken from several of BP's oilfield developments.
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Limit the search to the library catalogue. Project guidelines for selecting seals for high pressure gas duty and other oilfield service English. BHR Group , Cranfield; Regrettably, indication of copyright fee is not available. For further questions please contact our TIB customer service.
Project guidelines for selecting seals for high pressure gas duty and other oilfield service. Projektrichtlinien zur Dichtungsauswahl für den Hochdruckgasbetrieb und andere technische Ölfelddienste. Fluid Sealing, International Conference, Lynx lynx Eurasian lynx. Lynx pardinus Iberian lynx.
Otocolobus manul Pallas's cat. Prionailurus rubiginosus rusty-spotted cat. Prionailurus bengalensis leopard cat. Prionailurus viverrinus fishing cat. Prionailurus planiceps flat-headed cat. Felis chaus jungle cat. Felis nigripes black-footed cat. Felis margarita sand cat. Felis bieti Chinese mountain cat.
Felis lybica African wildcat. Felis silvestris European wildcat. Felis catus domestic cat. The list differs from McKenna and Bell as follows: Sivapanthera is included in the Felinae, as Acinonychinae is no longer recognised as distinct subfamily; Viretailurus is considered a synonym of Puma ; Ischyrosmilus is considered a synonym of the genus Homotherium ;  and several newly recognised genera, including Miracinonyx , Lokotunjailurus and Xenosmilus , have been added.
Cat species are native to every continent except Australasia and Antarctica. Some are adapted to desert environments, some to wetlands , some to high altitude mountainous terrain. Those cat species living in forests are generally agile climbers. All cat species are obligate carnivores and require meat. Apart from the lion , wild cats are generally solitary and secretive. Feral domestic cats form colonies.
Cheetah males are known to live and hunt in groups. Activity pattern of cat species ranges from nocturnal to crepuscular and diurnal , depending on their preferred prey species. The colour, length and density of their fur are highly variable. Fur colour varies from brown to golden, and fur pattern from distinctive small spots, stripes, to small blotches and rosettes. Those living in cold environments have thick fur with long hair, like the snow leopard and the Pallas's cat.
The only cat species lacking significant markings are the lion, cougar , caracal , jungle cat and jaguarundi. Several species exhibit melanism with all-black individuals. In the great majority of species, the tail is between a third and a half of the body length, although with some exceptions, like the Lynx species and margay.
Felids also have a highly developed sense of smell, although not to the degree seen in canids ; this is further supplemented by the presence of a vomeronasal organ in the roof of the mouth, allowing the animal to "taste" the air. The use of this organ is associated with the Flehmen response , in which the upper lip is curled upwards. Most felids are unable to taste sweetness due to a mutated gene in their taste buds. Most felids are able to land on their feet after a fall due to the cat righting reflex.
All felids share a broadly similar set of vocalisations, but with some variation between species. In particular, the pitch of calls varies, with larger species producing deeper sounds. All felids are able to spit, hiss, growl , snarl, and mew. The first four sounds are all used in an aggressive context. The spitting sound is a sudden burst, typically used when making threats, especially towards other species. The hiss is a prolonged, atonal sound used in close range to other members of the species, when the animal is uncertain whether to attack or retreat.
The mewing sound may be used either as a close-contact call, typically between a mother and kittens, or as a louder, longer distance call, primarily during the mating season. The acoustic properties of the mew vary somewhat between different felid species; extreme examples include the whistling sound made by cougars and the mew-grunt of lions and tigers.
Most felids seem to be able to purr , vibrating the muscles in their larynx to produce a distinctive buzzing sound. In the wild, purring is used while a mother is caring for kittens. Precisely which species of felids are able to purr is a matter of debate, but the sound has been recorded in most of the smaller species, as well as being common for the cheetah and cougar, and may also be found in other big cats.
Other common felid vocalisations include the gurgle, wah-wah, prusten , and roar. The first two sounds are found only among the Felinae small cats. Gurgling is a quiet sound used during meetings between friendly individuals, as well as during courtship and when nursing kittens.
The wah-wah is a short, deep-sounding call used in close contact, and is not found in all species it is, for example, absent in the domestic cat. In contrast, only Panthera species can prusten and roar. Prusten is a short, soft, snorting sound reported in tigers, jaguars, snow leopards, and clouded leopards; it is used during contact between friendly individuals. The roar is an especially loud call with a distinctive pattern that depends on the species. The ability to roar comes from an elongated and specially adapted larynx and hyoid apparatus.
Only lions, leopards, tigers, and jaguars are truly able to roar, although the loudest mews of snow leopards have a similar, if less structured, sound. Possibly the oldest known true felid Proailurus lived in the late Oligocene and early Miocene epochs.
During the Miocene, it gave way to Pseudaelurus. Pseudaelurus is believed to be the latest common ancestor of the two extant subfamilies and the extinct subfamily, Machairodontinae. This group, better known as the saber-tooth cats, became extinct in the Late Pleistocene era. The group includes the genera Smilodon , Machairodus and Homotherium. The Metailurini were originally classified as a distinct tribe within Machairodontinae, though they count as members of the Felinae in recent times.
As a result, sabretooth "cats" seem to belong to four different lineages. The total number of fossil felids known to science is low compared to other carnivoran families, such as dogs and bears. Felidae radiated quite recently and most of the extant species are relatively young. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the biological family. For Other uses, see Felidae disambiguation. For the village in Iran, see Felid, Iran.
List of felid species. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed. Johns Hopkins University Press. American Museum Novitates Journal of Mammalian Evolution. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. Public Library of Science. Robinson's Genetics for Cat Breeders and Veterinarians 4th ed.
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Journal of Molecular Evolution. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics. Description of an extinct species of American lion: Transactions of the American Philosophical Society: Retrieved 28 November University of Indiana Press.
Wild Cats of the World. University of Chicago Press. Journal of Natural History. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Biology and Conservation of wild felids. Uses authors parameter link CS1 maint: Retrieved 27 January Jungle trails in northern India: Metheun and Company Limited. Archived from the original on Volume II, Part 2. Carnivora Hyaenas and Cats ]. Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation. The mammals of the southern African subregion.
Uses authors parameter link. African palm civet N. Angolan slender mongoose G. Ethiopian dwarf mongoose H. Small-toothed palm civet A. Sulawesi palm civet M. Masked palm civet P. Golden wet-zone palm civet P. Owston's palm civet C.
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